An adhesive being applied on a wooden surface

Joining Traditional Materials

Find out how you can effectively bond rubber, wood, glass, concrete, ceramics with adhesives.


Industrial Adhesives & Tapes | Ask A 3M Expert

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Understanding the Surface Energy of Traditional Materials

  • chart of surface energy rating for concrete, wood, glass, ceramic, leather and fabrics.
  • Surface energy (also known as wet-out) is a measure of how readily something - be it water or adhesive - spreads out over a surface. Materials with high surface energy wet out very well and form bonds easily, while those with low surface energy resist wetting out. Surface energy is the reason why it’s simple to bond metals and difficult to bond plastics.​

    ​In between those extremes are a whole range of substrates with medium surface energies – not very difficult to bond, but each with its own specific considerations. This group of traditional materials includes old technologies such as glass, ceramics and concrete as well as more natural materials like wood, leather and fabric (both natural and synthetic). Depending on the specific material chosen for your product design, your choice of adhesive will also affect how strongly it bonds with a similar or different substrate.

Bonding glass or wood

  • lem kaca paling kuat (glass adhesive glue solutions for the strongest bonds)

    Glass is most often chosen for transparency, but it’s also strong, scratch-resistant, impervious to liquids and easy to clean, all of which make it popular with consumers. Glass has a wide range of applications from television and smartphone screens to signage and architecture panels. 3M™ adhesives for bonding glass include VHB™ tapes and structural epoxies.​

    3M™ VHB™ Tape

    3M™ Scotch-Weld™ Epoxy Adhesives

  • lem perekat kayu terbaik (best adhesive solutions for bonding wood)

    Wood is natural, can bear heavy loads, takes paint or stain well and is aesthetically pleasing. This renewable resource is used in many applications from construction to furniture to trim. The most basic factor in bonding wood is its absorptivity: to use tape you want to smooth the surface with paint or varnish and thus bond the finish, whereas a liquid adhesive will best wet out unfinished wood.

    3M™ Spray Adhesives

    3M™ Hot Melt Adhesives

    3M™ Reclosable Fasteners

Bonding fabric or leather

  • spray adhesive glue for fabrics

    Fabrics range from natural materials like cotton or wool to synthetics made of LSE plastics such as polyester. Common applications where bonding is preferred to stitching include floor coverings and seat cushions as well as some clothing and accessories. Bonding concerns with fabric are usually about the base material rather than the fact that it’s woven into fabric. ​​

  • adhesives for bonding leather seats in transportation applications

    Leather is tanned animal skin and is prized for its durable yet flexible nature. It is most commonly used in clothing, sporting goods and furniture, often in applications where a bond is preferable to a visible stitch. The back side of leather is generally porous and easy to bond, but the finished side may have oil or finishing pigments that the adhesive has to bond rather than the leather itself.​​

Bonding Ceramics or Concrete

  • adhesive solutions for bonding ceramic parts

    Made from fired clay, ceramics are prized for strength, hardness and resistance to wear and chemicals. They also exhibit excellent temperature resistance and low thermal expansion, which is why they are often used as heat shielding. Ceramics have many applications in the consumer goods, electronics and aerospace industries. Industrial and technical ceramics are nearly always glazed, so the bond is really to its vitreous or glasslike glaze rather than the porous ceramic beneath.

  • using adhesives for bonding concrete to structures made from steel or other dissimilar materials

    Concrete is very malleable when mixed but hardens to a strong, durable form used in all kinds of construction from roadways to housing to commercial buildings. Even smooth-finished concrete is comparatively rough and absorptive, so an adhesive that flows can fill in the rough surface. And because we expect concrete to last indefinitely, any adhesive bond should also have a long life expectancy.​​

Assembly Types

In determining which adhesive will perform best, it is very often helpful to consider the assembly type. The six assembly types shown below have different design characteristics that often determine the best adhesive or tape.

Design confidently with the trusted solution

Streamline your processes and achieve greater cost-efficiency with adhesives and tapes that deliver reliable bonding for any design. Contact our experts to tailor a solution for your assembly needs.

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